Intensities distribution and parameters controlling their geographic differentiation during the earthquakes of Izmit and Dtizce (Turkey 1999)

Pages: 
pp. 199-208
Department of Geology, University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli, Athens 15784, Greece
Abstract: 

On 17th August and 12th November 1999 the wider area of Yalova, Gölcük, Izmit, Adapazari, Düzce, Kaynasli and Bolu, to the south-southeast of Istanbul (Turkey) was hit by two seismic shocks with magnitude MW = 7.4 and MW = 7.1, respectively. The two events are attributed to reactivation of two adjacent segments of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, a major E-W right-lateral strike-slip fault zone that runs across Turkey. The earthquakes produced surface ruptures over a distance of at least 150 km, as well as settlement, soil fissures, liquefaction, landslides, tsunamis and subsidence. In both cases, the damage distributed was mainly along an E-W aligned zone more than 180 km long and a few km wide. Damage and intensity evaluation followed the EMS1992 and the updated EMS1998 scales. The maximum mtensities approached XII in both earthquakes. Intensity maps show alignment parallel to the strike of the seismic faults, with local variations due to geometry and kinematics of certain tectonic structures. Intensities were considerably amplified locally by accompanying geodynamic phenomena. High intensities were also recorded at long epicentral due to a combination of factors, such as earthquake frequency content, local site conditions and construction type. Finally, intensities exhibited an exponential development in places where the two earthquakes affected the constructions sequentially.

Keywords: 

EMS-1998, earthquake, Turkey, tectonics, site effect, concomitant phenomena

VOLUME 32 (2-4)/December 2002 110th Anniversary of Acad. Prof. Strashimir Dimitrov; XVII Congress of the Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association

Geologica Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., block 24
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., block 24
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., block 24
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., block 24
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., block 24
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., block 24
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., block 24

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. Bl. 24

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,Sofia 1113, Bulgaria, Acad. G. Bonchev str, bl. 24
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,Sofia 1113, Bulgaria, Acad. G. Bonchev str, bl. 24
|
Earth Science Section of the Uviversity of Geneva, 13, rue des Maraîchers, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
|
Earth Science Section of the Uviversity of Geneva, 13, rue des Maraîchers, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
|
Sofia University "Sv. Kliment Ohridski", 1504 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia
|
Sofia University "Sv. Kliment Ohridski", Tsar Osvobodilel Blvd, 15, 1000 Sofia
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia

Geological institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria
|
Geological institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria
|
Geological institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria
|
University of Mining and Geology "Sv. Ivan Rilski", 1700, Sofia

Geological institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia
|
Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 4019, 664033 Irkutsk
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1113
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1113
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1113
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1113
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1113
|
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1113

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1113

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Geological Institute, BAS, Acad. G. Bonchev Street Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute of BAS, 24 Acad. G. Bonchev Sir., BG - 1113 Sofia
|
Geological Institute of BAS, 24 Acad. G. Bonchev Sir., BG - 1113 Sofia
|
Geological Institute of BAS, 24 Acad. G. Bonchev Sir., BG - 1113 Sofia

Geological Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
|
Geological Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
|
Geological Institute at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

University of Mining and Geology, Studentski grad, Sofia, 1100, Bulgaria
|
Geological Institute of Romania, Caransebes Str. No 1, Bucharest, RO-78344, Romania
|
University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, Belgrad, 11000, Yugoslavia
|
Geological Institute of Romania, Caransebes Str. No 1, Bucharest, RO-78344, Romania

Geological Institute at Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113

Sofia University "Sv. Kl. Ohridski", Department of Geology and Palaeontology, 1504 Sofia