XRD graphitization degrees: a review of the published data and new calculations, correlations, and applications

Pages: 
pp. 11-35
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Abstract: 

A system for transformation, correlation, and unification of subordinations between d002 (Å) of semi-graphite and graphite, graphitization degrees and metamorphic temperature was created. The existing equations in the literature were analyzed and new equations, which determine correlation relationships between these parameters, were formulated. The effect of factors that control graphitization processes (temperature, general pressure and tectonic stress, structure and origin of primary carbon matter, orientation of carbon formations, fluids, mineral and chemical composition, and duration of processes) was also considered. It was concluded that the structural state of semi-graphite and graphite is reversible, and this can be used for facies diagnostics and studying of metamorphic history of graphite-bearing metamorphic rocks. A new scale for graphitization degrees was proposed.

Keywords: 

graphitization degrees, unification of graphitization degrees, graphitization factors, facies diagnostics, prognosis of graphite quality

DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.52321/GeolBalc.50.1.11

VOLUME 50 (1)/April 2021

Regional Museum of History Kardzhali, 4 Republikanska Str., 6600 Kardzhali, Bulgaria
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GORUBSO Kardzhali AD, 83 Republikanska Str., 6600 Kardzhali, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Mineralogy, Petrography and Geochemistry (IGEM), Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017 Moscow, 35/1 Staromonetnyi pereulok, Russian Federation
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Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Bulgarian Geological Society
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Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria