Sedimentary and faunal evidence for the Late Devonian Kellwasser and Annulata events in the Balkan Terrane (Bulgaria)

Pages: 
pp. 17-24
Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
University of Mining and Geology, Department of Geology and Geo-Information, Sofia; Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Westphälische Wilhelms-Universität, Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Corrensstr. 24, D-48149 Münster, Germany
Abstract: 

The global Upper Kellwasser (Frasnian–Famennian boundary interval) and Annulata Events (base of upper Famennian, Upper Devonian IV-A) are recorded for the first time in deep marine sedimentary successions of western Bulgaria. Within the upper Parchar Formation of the Lyubash-Golo Bardo Unit, a distinctive black shale unit yielded frequent, partly still articulated bivalves (Guerichia) and a Platyclymenia-fauna, including the name-giving Pl. annulata, although smooth platyclymeniids are more common. This interval reflects within a thick Eovariscan flysch succession an episode of starved sedimentation, increased organic productivity, oxygen deficiency, and bloom of opportunistic specialists. The event biofacies agrees with a basinal setting far away from land and its nutrient input. The Upper Kellwasser interval is recognized within the thick flysch sequence of the Katina Formation in the Svoge Unit. It is characterized by an interruption of carbonate deposition, as it is typical for other basinal settings, for example, of the Rhenish and Thuringian basins of Germany.

Keywords: 

Kellwasser and Annulata events, Balkan Terrane, Bulgaria

VOLUME 44 (1-3)/December 2015

University of Mining and Geology, Department of Geology and Geo-Information, Studentski Grad,“Prof. Boyan Kamenov” St., Sofia 1700; Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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University of Mining and Geology, Department of Geology and Geo-Information, Sofia; Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Westphälische Wilhelms-Universität, Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie, Corrensstr. 24, D-48149 Münster, Germany

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Hungarian Natural History Museum, Department of Botany, 1476 Budapest, P.O. Box 222, Hungary

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl.24, 1113 Sofia; Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH-Zurich
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Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl.7, 1113 Sofia
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Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH-Zurich
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Institute of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl.7, 1113 Sofia

Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl.24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl.24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria